Auteur Sujet: [FireEye]Chinese Espionage Group TEMP.Periscope Targets Cambodia Ahead of July 2018 Elections and Reveals Broad Operations Globally  (Lu 110 fois)

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Chinese Espionage Group TEMP.Periscope Targets Cambodia Ahead of July
2018 Elections and Reveals Broad Operations Globally



FireEye has examined a range of TEMP.Periscope activity revealing
  extensive interest in Cambodia's politics, with active compromises of
  multiple Cambodian entities related to the country’s electoral system.
  This includes compromises of Cambodian government entities charged
  with overseeing the elections, as well as the targeting of opposition
  figures. This campaign occurs in the run up to the country’s July 29,
  2018, general elections. TEMP.Periscope used the same infrastructure
  for a range of activity against other more traditional targets,
  including the defense industrial base in the United States and a
  chemical company based in Europe. Our previous blog post focused on
  the group’s     href="/content/fireeye-www/ja_JP/blog/jp-threat-research/2018/03/suspected-chinese-espionage-group-targeting-maritime-and-engineering-industries.html">targeting
    of engineering and maritime entities in the United States.


Overall, this activity indicates that the group maintains an
  extensive intrusion architecture and wide array of malicious tools,
  and targets a large victim set, which is in line with typical
  Chinese-based APT efforts. We expect this activity to provide the
  Chinese government with widespread visibility into Cambodian elections
  and government operations. Additionally, this group is clearly able to
  run several large-scale intrusions concurrently across a wide range of
  victim types.


Our analysis also strengthened our overall attribution of this
  group. We observed the toolsets we previously attributed to this
  group, their observed targets are in line with past group efforts and
  also highly similar to known Chinese APT efforts, and we identified an
  IP address originating in Hainan, China that was used to remotely
  access and administer a command and control (C2) server.


TEMP.Periscope Background


Active since at least 2013, TEMP.Periscope has primarily focused on
  maritime-related targets across multiple verticals, including
  engineering firms, shipping and transportation, manufacturing,
  defense, government offices, and research universities (targeting is
  summarized in Figure 1). The group has also targeted
  professional/consulting services, high-tech industry, healthcare, and
  media/publishing. TEMP.Periscope overlaps in targeting, as well as
  tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), with TEMP.Jumper, a group
  that also overlaps significantly with public reporting by   href="">Proofpoint
  and   href="">F-Secure
  on "NanHaiShu."


 Figure 1: Summary of TEMP.Periscope activity


Incident Background


FireEye analyzed files on three open indexes believed to be
  controlled by TEMP.Periscope, which yielded insight into the group's
  objectives, operational tactics, and a significant amount of technical
  attribution/validation. These files were "open indexed" and
  thus accessible to anyone on the public internet. This TEMP.Periscope
  activity on these servers extends from at least April 2017 to the
  present, with the most current operations focusing on Cambodia's
  government and elections.

  • Two servers,
        chemscalere[.]com and scsnewstoday[.]com, operate as typical C2
        servers and hosting sites, while the third, mlcdailynews[.]com,
        functions as an active SCANBOX server. The C2 servers contained both
        logs and malware.
  • Analysis of logs from the three servers
    • Potential actor logins from an IP address
              located in Hainan, China that was used to remotely access and
              administer the servers, and interact with malware deployed at
              victim organizations.
    • Malware command and control
              check-ins from victim organizations in the education, aviation,
              chemical, defense, government, maritime, and technology sectors
              across multiple regions. FireEye has notified all of the victims
              that we were able to identify.
  • The malware
        present on the servers included both new families (DADBOD, EVILTECH)
        and previously identified malware families (AIRBREAK, EVILTECH,


  Compromises of Cambodian Election Entities


Analysis of command and control logs on the servers revealed
  compromises of multiple Cambodian entities, primarily those relating
  to the upcoming July 2018 elections. In addition, a separate spear
  phishing email analyzed by FireEye indicates concurrent targeting of
  opposition figures within Cambodia by TEMP.Periscope.


Analysis indicated that the following Cambodian government
  organizations and individuals were compromised by TEMP.Periscope:

  • National Election
        Commission, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
        and International Cooperation, Cambodian Senate, Ministry of
        Economics and Finance
  • Member of Parliament representing
        Cambodia National Rescue Party
  • Multiple Cambodians
        advocating human rights and democracy who have written critically of
        the current ruling party
  • Two Cambodian diplomats serving
  • Multiple Cambodian media entities


TEMP.Periscope sent a spear phish with AIRBREAK malware to
  Monovithya Kem, Deputy Director-General, Public Affairs, Cambodia
  National Rescue Party (CNRP), and the daughter of (imprisoned)
  Cambodian opposition party leader Kem Sokha (Figure 2). The decoy
  document purports to come from LICADHO (a non-governmental
  organization [NGO] in Cambodia established in 1992 to promote human
  rights). This sample leveraged scsnewstoday[.]com for C2.


 Figure 2: Human right protection survey lure


The decoy document "Interview Questions.docx" (MD5:
  ba1e5b539c3ae21c756c48a8b5281b7e) is tied to AIRBREAK downloaders of
  the same name. The questions reference the opposition Cambodian
  National Rescue Party, human rights, and the election (Figure 3).


 Figure 3: Interview questions decoy


  Infrastructure Also Used for Operations Against Private Companies


The aforementioned malicious infrastructure was also used against
  private companies in Asia, Europe and North America. These companies
  are in a wide range of industries, including academics, aviation,
  chemical, maritime, and technology. A MURKYTOP sample from 2017 and
  data contained in a file linked to chemscalere[.]com suggest that a
  corporation involved in the U.S. defense industrial base (DIB)
  industry, possibly related to maritime research, was compromised. Many
  of these compromises are in line with TEMP.Periscope’s previous
  activity targeting maritime and defense industries. However, we also
  uncovered the compromise of a European chemical company with a
  presence in Asia, demonstrating that this group is a threat to
  business worldwide, particularly those with ties to Asia.


  AIRBREAK Downloaders and Droppers Reveal Lure Indicators


Filenames for AIRBREAK downloaders found on the open indexed sites
  also suggest the ongoing targeting of interests associated with Asian
  geopolitics. In addition, analysis of AIRBREAK downloader sites
  revealed a related server that underscores TEMP.Periscope's interest
  in Cambodian politics.


The AIRBREAK downloaders in Table 1 redirect intended victims to the
  indicated sites to display a legitimate decoy document while
  downloading an AIRBREAK payload from one of the identified C2s. Of
  note, the hosting site for the legitimate documents was not
  compromised. An additional C2 domain, partyforumseasia[.]com, was
  identified as the callback for an AIRBREAK downloader referencing the
  Cambodian National Rescue Party.





(3c51c89078139337c2c92e084bb0904c) [Figure 4]

        rowspan="3" width="126">


















          Redirect Site (Not Malicious)

          AIRBREAK Downloader

          AIRBREAK C2














  Table 1: AIRBREAK downloaders


 Figure 4: Decoy document associated with
    AIRBREAK downloader file TOP_NEWS_Japan_to_Support_the_Election.js


  SCANBOX Activity Gives Hints to Future Operations


The active SCANBOX server, mlcdailynews[.]com, is hosting articles
  related to the current Cambodian campaign and broader operations.
  Articles found on the server indicate targeting of those with
  interests in U.S.-East Asia geopolitics, Russia and NATO affairs.
  Victims are likely either brought to the SCANBOX server via strategic
  website compromise or malicious links in targeted emails with the
  article presented as decoy material. The articles come from
  open-source reporting readily available online. Figure 5 is a SCANBOX
  welcome page and Table 2 is a list of the articles found on the server.


 Figure 5: SCANBOX welcome page

              rowspan="9" width="204">

Khmer Times

              rowspan="2" width="204">

Fresh News









          Copied Article Topic

          Article Source (Not Compromised)

Leaders confident yet nervous

Mahathir_ 'We want to be friendly with

PM urges voters to support CPP for peace


CPP determined to maintain Kingdom's peace and

Bun Chhay's wife dies at 60

Crackdown planned on boycott callers

Further floods coming to Kingdom

Kem Sokha again denied bail

PM vows to stay on as premier to quash

Iran_ Don't trust Trump

Kim-Trump summit_ Singapore's role

Trump's North Korea summit may bring peace
          declaration - but at a cost



U.S. pushes NATO to ready more forces to deter
          Russian threat

Interior Minister Sar Kheng warns of dirty

Phnom Penh

Another player to enter market for cashless

Donald Trump says he has 'absolute right' to
          pardon himself but he's done nothing wrong - Donald Trump's

ABC News

China-funded national road inaugurated in

The Cambodia Daily


Kim and Trump in first summit session in

Asia Times

U.S. to suspend military exercises with South
          Korea, Trump says

U.S. News


Rainsy defamed the King_ Hun Sen

Associated Press


  Table 2: SCANBOX articles copied to server


  TEMP.Periscope Malware Suite


Analysis of the malware inventory contained on the three servers
  found a classic suite of TEMP.Periscope payloads, including the
  signature AIRBREAK, MURKYTOP, and HOMEFRY. In addition, FireEye’s
  analysis identified new tools, EVILTECH and DADBOD (Table 3).








          style="list-style-position: inside;">
  • EVILTECH is a
                JavaScript sample that implements a simple RAT with support
                for uploading, downloading, and running arbitrary
  • During the infection process, EVILTECH is
                run on the system, which then causes a redirect and possibly
                the download of additional malware or connection to another
                attacker-controlled system.


              style="list-style-position: inside;">
  • DADBOD is a tool
                used to steal user cookies.
  • Analysis of this
                malware is still ongoing.


      Table 3: New additions to the TEMP.Periscope
        malware suite


      Data from Logs Strengthens Attribution to China


    Our analysis of the servers and surrounding data in this latest
      campaign bolsters our previous assessment that TEMP.Periscope is
      likely Chinese in origin. Data from a control panel access log
      indicates that operators are based in China and are operating on
      computers with Chinese language settings.


    A log on the server revealed IP addresses that had been used to log
      in to the software used to communicate with malware on victim
      machines. One of the IP addresses,, is located in
      Hainan, China. Other addresses belong to virtual private servers, but
      artifacts indicate that the computers used to log in all cases are
      configured with Chinese language settings.


      Outlook and Implications


    The activity uncovered here offers new insight into TEMP.Periscope’s
      activity. We were previously aware of this actor’s interest in
      maritime affairs, but this compromise gives additional indications
      that it will target the political system of strategically important
      countries. Notably, Cambodia has served as a reliable supporter of
      China’s South China Sea position in international forums such as ASEAN
      and is an important partner. While Cambodia is rated as Authoritarian
      by the Economist’s Democracy Index, the recent surprise upset of the
      ruling party in Malaysia may motivate China to closely monitor
      Cambodia’s July 29 elections.


    The targeting of the election commission is particularly
      significant, given the critical role it plays in facilitating voting.
      There is not yet enough information to determine why the organization
      was compromised – simply gathering intelligence or as part of a more
      complex operation. Regardless, this incident is the most recent
      example of aggressive nation-state intelligence collection on election
      processes worldwide.


    We expect TEMP.Periscope to continue targeting a wide range of
      government and military agencies, international organizations, and
      private industry. However focused this group may be on maritime
      issues, several incidents underscore their broad reach, which has
      included European firms doing business in Southeast Asia and the
      internal affairs of littoral nations. FireEye expects TEMP.Periscope
      will remain a virulent threat for those operating in the area for the
      foreseeable future.

    Source: Chinese Espionage Group TEMP.Periscope Targets Cambodia Ahead of July
    2018 Elections and Reveals Broad Operations Globally